Food Lists

What Products Contain Leavening?

During Unleavened Bread we are to have no leaven or leavened products in our home (Exodus:12:15; Exodus:12:19; Exodus:13:7).

Leaven is a food additive, which causes bread or bread products to rise. The apostle Paul used this property of leaven to teach Christians that a “puffed up” attitude is sin (compare 1 Corinthians:5:2 with 1 Corinthians:5:6-7).

Leaven includes yeast, a biological leavening agent that produces fermentation, and chemical leavening agents such as baking powder, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), and potassium bicarbonate. Items such as bread, cake, crackers, cookies and prepared cereals and pies that contain leavening must be put out. Doing this is symbolic of putting both the visible and hidden sins out of our lives. Homemade cream puffs, angel food cake, popovers and sponge cake, while light and fluffy, need not contain any of the above ingredients. Most pie crust recipes (except for graham cracker crusts) are unleavened. However, these products, when purchased from stores or bakeries, frequently do include leavening. Check the ingredient list.

Even though pita bread, flour tortillas and graham crackers are flat, they do contain leavening. Even some brands of matzos marked "kosher for Passover" can also list baking soda or baking powder in the ingredients! So be careful.

Although the following ingredients are associated with leavening products; they are not, by themselves, leavening agents: brewer’s yeast, yeast extract (a flavoring), cornstarch and cream of tartar (a dry acid). Cream of tartar, being an acid, merely neutralizes the alkaline nature of baking soda and does not, by itself, cause dough to rise.

Leavening Agents


Leaven is any agent that produces fermentation and causes dough to rise, by causing the formation of carbon dioxide gas to bubble into and spread throughout the dough. This is accomplished either chemically (as with baking soda) or biologically (as with yeast).

Baking Soda: a crystalline alkaline salt that gives off gas when an acid is added. The following are different types of baking soda:

  • Sodium bicarbonate, also known as “Saleratus.”
  • Potassium bicarbonate, or potash.
  • Ammonium carbonate, or “baker’s ammonia.”
  • Ammonium bicarbonate, also known as “hartshorn.”
  • Baking Powder (baking soda + acid-forming ingredients + starch filler).
  • Sourdough starter (a wild yeast colony that is maintained with flour and moisture).
  • Yeast (a single-celled fungi, used to leaven).

Not Leavening


  • Autolyzed yeast: A yeast that has ‘self-destructed’ and is sterile – incapable of leavening.
  • Brewers Yeast: A dead form of yeast that cannot leaven bread; a ‘nutritional’ yeast.
  • Torula Yeast: A dead yeast that cannot leaven bread, considered a ‘nutritional’ yeast. Also hickory smoked torula yeast. Used as a savory seasoning that imparts smoky aroma to foods.
  • Yeast extract(s): Derivatives of yeast, which are sterile and cannot leaven bread.
  • Cream of Tartar: Tartaric acid – potassium bitartrate or potassium hydrogen tartrate. This is an acid used to combine with baking soda. By itself, this is not leavening.
  • Tartrate powder: Phosphate powder or sulfate powder – usually added with cream of tartar. By itself this is not leavening.
  • Alum: A metallic double salt, usually added with cream of tartar. Most common is sodium aluminum sulfate (SAS or sulfate powder), and potassium aluminum sulfate (or potash alum). By itself this is not leavening.
  • Sorbitan monosterate: A flavor and texture enhancer. Not leaven of itself.
  • Sodium Caseinate: A milk protein, not a leaven
  • Sodium Silicoaluminate: A fine powder that is used to keep cocoa, salt and other products dry, not a leaven
  • Polysorbate 60: A preservative; not a leaven.
  • Egg whites: Not a leavening agent. While beaten egg white can be stirred into dough, it does not spread through dough as leavening does and is not leavening.
  • Steam or air (such as in popovers or angel food cake). The same principle as egg whites (above) applies; there is no leavening agent mixed through the dough.

Clean and Unclean

Leviticus 11
The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, 2 "Say to the Israelites: 'Of all the animals that live on land, these are the ones you may eat: 3 You may eat any animal that has a divided hoof and that chews the cud.

4 "'There are some that only chew the cud or only have a divided hoof, but you must not eat them. The camel, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is ceremonially unclean for you. 5 The hyrax, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you. 6 The rabbit, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you. 7 And the pig, though it has a divided hoof, does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you. 8 You must not eat their meat or touch their carcasses; they are unclean for you.

9 "Of all the creatures living in the water of the seas and the streams you may eat any that have fins and scales. 10 But all creatures in the seas or streams that do not have fins and scales—whether among all the swarming things or among all the other living creatures in the water—you are to regard as unclean. 11 And since you are to regard them as unclean, you must not eat their meat; you must regard their carcasses as unclean. 12 Anything living in the water that does not have fins and scales is to be regarded as unclean by you.

13 "'These are the birds you are to regard as unclean and not eat because they are unclean: the eagle,[a] the vulture, the black vulture, 14 the red kite, any kind of black kite, 15 any kind of raven, 16 the horned owl, the screech owl, the gull, any kind of hawk, 17 the little owl, the cormorant, the great owl, 18 the white owl, the desert owl, the osprey, 19 the stork, any kind of heron, the hoopoe and the bat.

20 "'All flying insects that walk on all fours are to be regarded as unclean by you. 21 There are, however, some flying insects that walk on all fours that you may eat: those that have jointed legs for hopping on the ground. 22 Of these you may eat any kind of locust, katydid, cricket or grasshopper. 23 But all other flying insects that have four legs you are to regard as unclean.

24 "'You will make yourselves unclean by these; whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean till evening. 25 Whoever picks up one of their carcasses must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening.

26 "'Every animal that does not have a divided hoof or that does not chew the cud is unclean for you; whoever touches the carcass of any of them will be unclean. 27 Of all the animals that walk on all fours, those that walk on their paws are unclean for you; whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean till evening. 28 Anyone who picks up their carcasses must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening. These animals are unclean for you.

29 "'Of the animals that move along the ground, these are unclean for you: the weasel, the rat, any kind of great lizard, 30 the gecko, the monitor lizard, the wall lizard, the skink and the chameleon. 31 Of all those that move along the ground, these are unclean for you. Whoever touches them when they are dead will be unclean till evening. 32 When one of them dies and falls on something, that article, whatever its use, will be unclean, whether it is made of wood, cloth, hide or sackcloth. Put it in water; it will be unclean till evening, and then it will be clean. 33 If one of them falls into a clay pot, everything in it will be unclean, and you must break the pot. 34 Any food you are allowed to eat that has come into contact with water from any such pot is unclean, and any liquid that is drunk from such a pot is unclean. 35 Anything that one of their carcasses falls on becomes unclean; an oven or cooking pot must be broken up. They are unclean, and you are to regard them as unclean. 36 A spring, however, or a cistern for collecting water remains clean, but anyone who touches one of these carcasses is unclean. 37 If a carcass falls on any seeds that are to be planted, they remain clean. 38 But if water has been put on the seed and a carcass falls on it, it is unclean for you.

39 "'If an animal that you are allowed to eat dies, anyone who touches its carcass will be unclean till evening. 40 Anyone who eats some of its carcass must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening. Anyone who picks up the carcass must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening.

41 "'Every creature that moves along the ground is to be regarded as unclean; it is not to be eaten. 42 You are not to eat any creature that moves along the ground, whether it moves on its belly or walks on all fours or on many feet; it is unclean. 43 Do not defile yourselves by any of these creatures. Do not make yourselves unclean by means of them or be made unclean by them. 44 I am the Lord your God; consecrate yourselves and be holy, because I am holy. Do not make yourselves unclean by any creature that moves along the ground. 45 I am the Lord, who brought you up out of Egypt to be your God; therefore be holy, because I am holy.

46 "'These are the regulations concerning animals, birds, every living thing that moves about in the water and every creature that moves along the ground. 47 You must distinguish between the unclean and the clean, between living creatures that may be eaten and those that may not be eaten.'"
Animal Edible
Antelope Clean
Bison (buffalo) Clean
Caribou Clean
Cattle (beef, veal) Clean
Deer (venison) Clean
Elk Clean
Gazelle Clean
Giraffe Clean
Goat Clean
Hart Clean
Ibex Clean
Moose Clean
Ox Clean
Reindeer Clean
Sheep (lamb, mutton) Clean
Anchovy Clean
Barracuda Clean
Bass Clean
Black pomfret (or monchong) Clean
Bluefish Clean
Bluegill Clean
Carp Clean
Cod Clean
Crappie Clean
Drum Clean
Flounder Clean
Grouper Clean
Grunt Clean
Haddock Clean
Hake Clean
Halibut Clean
Hardhead Clean
Herring (or alewife) Clean
Kingfish Clean
Mackerel Clean
Mahimahi (or dorado, dolphinfish[not Clean
to be confused with the mammal dolphin]) Clean
Minnow Clean
Mullet Clean
Perch (or bream) Clean
Pike (or pickerel or jack) Clean
Pollack (or pollock or Boston bluefish) Clean
Rockfish Clean
Salmon Clean
Sardine (or pilchard) Clean
Shad Clean
Silver hake (or whiting) Clean
Smelt (or frost fish or ice fish) Clean
Snapper (or ebu, jobfish, lehi, onaga, opakapaka or uku) Clean
Sole Clean
Steelhead Clean
Sucker Clean
Sunfish Clean
Tarpon Clean
Trout (or weakfish) Clean
Tuna (or ahi, aku, albacore, bonito Clean
or tombo) Clean
Whitefish Clean
Chicken Clean
Dove Clean
Duck Clean
Goose Clean
Grouse Clean
Guinea fowl Clean
Partridge Clean
Peafowl Clean
Pheasant Clean
Pigeon Clean
Prairie chicken Clean
Ptarmigan Clean
Quail Clean
Sagehen Clean
Sparrow (and other songbirds) Clean
Swan* Clean
Teal Clean
Turkey Clean
Insects Clean
locusts (crickets and grasshoppers) Clean
Swine Unclean
Boar Unclean
Peccary Unclean
Pig (hog, bacon, ham, lard, pork, most sausage and pepperoni) Unclean
Coyote Unclean
Dog Unclean
Fox Unclean
Hyena Unclean
Jackal Unclean
Wolf Unclean
Cat Unclean
Cheetah Unclean
Leopard Unclean
Lion Unclean
Panther Unclean
Tiger Unclean
Ass Unclean
Donkey Unclean
Horse Unclean
Mule Unclean
Onager Unclean
Zebra (quagga) Unclean
Armadillo Unclean
Badger Unclean
Bear Unclean
Beaver Unclean
Camel Unclean
Elephant Unclean
Gorilla Unclean
Groundhog Unclean
Hare Unclean
Hippopotamus Unclean
Kangaroo Unclean
Llama (alpaca, vicuña) Unclean
Mole Unclean
Monkey Unclean
Mouse Unclean
Muskrat Unclean
Opossum Unclean
Porcupine Unclean
Rabbit Unclean
Raccoon Unclean
Rat Unclean
Rhinoceros Unclean
Skunk Unclean
Slug Unclean
Snail (escargot) Unclean
Squirrel Unclean
Wallaby Unclean
Weasel Unclean
Wolverine Unclean
Worm Unclean
Insects (except some in the locust family) Unclean
Marine Animals Without Scales and Fins Unclean
Bullhead Unclean
Catfish Unclean
Eel Unclean
European Turbot Unclean
Marlin Unclean
Paddlefish Unclean
Sculpin Unclean
Shark Unclean
Stickleback Unclean
Squid Unclean
Sturgeon (includes most caviar) Unclean
Swordfish Unclean
Shellfish Unclean
Abalone Unclean
Clam Unclean
Crab Unclean
Crayfish Unclean
Lobster Unclean
Mussel Unclean
Prawn Unclean
Oyster Unclean
Scallop Unclean
Shrimp Unclean
Cuttlefish Unclean
Jellyfish Unclean
Limpet Unclean
Octopus Unclean
Squid (calamari) Unclean
Dolphin Unclean
Otter Unclean
Porpoise Unclean
Seal Unclean
Walrus Unclean
Whale Unclean
Albatross Unclean
Bat Unclean
Bittern Unclean
Buzzard Unclean
Condor Unclean
Coot Unclean
Cormorant Unclean
Crane Unclean
Crow Unclean
Cuckoo Unclean
Eagle Unclean
Flamingo Unclean
Grebe Unclean
Grosbeak Unclean
Gull Unclean
Hawk Unclean
Heron Unclean
Kite Unclean
Lapwing Unclean
Loon Unclean
Magpie Unclean
Osprey Unclean
Ostrich Unclean
Owl Unclean
Parrot Unclean
Pelican Unclean
Penguin Unclean
Plover Unclean
Rail Unclean
Raven Unclean
Roadrunner Unclean
Sandpiper Unclean
Seagull Unclean
Stork Unclean
Swallow Unclean
Swift Unclean
Vulture Unclean
Water hen Unclean
Woodpecker Unclean
Reptiles Unclean
Alligator Unclean
Caiman Unclean
Crocodile Unclean
Lizard Unclean
Snake Unclean
Turtle Unclean
Amphibians Unclean
Blindworm Unclean
Frog Unclean
Newt Unclean
Salamander Unclean
Toad Unclean